Aleuts

People in the North of Pacific Asia and America. Live on the Aleutian Islands. (8,000 p.) and on the Commander Islands. ( 2002—600 p.) In 1980 there were 1,815 people living on the Aleutians, in Unalaska—178, Sand Point—360, King Cove—283, Saint George village—163, Saint Paul—450. In Alaska, Anchorage—1,512 p., Kodiak—573. The Aleut population in the mid-18th cent. was 12-15 thousand people.In anthropological terms, Aleuts and Eskimos form part of the Arctic type of the Pacific branch of the large Mongoloid race.

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Chukchi

CHUKCHI, people, the principal indigenous pop. of the NE of the RF. Total pop. (2002) 15,827. Boundaries of the distrib. area: the Kolyma R. in the W, the Arctic Oc. and Bering S. coast in the N and E, the Penzhina R. and mount. massifs of N Kamchatka in the S. The design. “C.”, used in the adm. documents in the 19-20th cent., is derived from the self-name of the tundra C.—chauchu, chavchavyt (rich in reind.). The coastal C. called themselves arnk’al’yt (maritime p.) or ram’arlyt (coastal dwellers). To distinguish themselves from other tribes, the C. use the self-design. lygo’ravetlyan (real people). (In the 1920s the design. “Lauravetlans” was used officially).The C. belong to the Arctic race: the tundra C. (together with the Koryaks), to the Kamchatka anthropol. type; the coastal C. (together with the Eskimos), to the Bering S. one.The C. lang. belongs to the Chukchi-Kamchatka gr., the integrity of its system testifies to independent development. There are diff. dialects: the E, or Uelen (which formed the basis of the lit. lang.), W (Pevek), Enmylin, Nunligran and Khatyr as well as the Chaun, Yanrakynnot, and Enurmin vernaculars. Dialect distinctions are insignif.The written language based upon the Lat. alphabet, since 1931; upon the Rus. alphabet, since 1936. The C. are the most ancient inhabitants of the mainland areas of the extr. NE of Sib., the bearers of the inland cult. of wild reind. hunters and fishers (Neolithic finds on the Ekytikyveem and Enmyveem rr. and Elgytg L. date back to the 2nd millennium BC).By 500 AD, having already domesticated the reind., the C. started interacting with the Eskimos. As a result, part of the C. turned to settled life at the seacoast. This process at its most intensive in the 14-16th cent., after the Yukagirs penetrated into the valleys of the Kolyma and Anadyr rr, having seized the C.’s seasonal wild reind. hunting grounds. Acc. to hist. legends of the Yukagirs, by the time of their arrival at the Kolyma R. its banks were pop. by the C. The Yukagirs’ migration, which had divided the C. populace in the lower reaches of the Kolyma R., stimulated the devel. of reind. herding among the C. Under the pressure from inland C. hunters, the Eskimo pop. of the Pacific and the Arctic Oc. coasts was partially ousted to other coastal areas, and partially assimilated.

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Chuvantsy

CHUVANS, etel, atal (Chukotka Yukagirs), people in Chukotka Aut. Area, mainly in Anadyr Distr. Pop. (2002) 1,300. Subdivided into ethnogr. gr. of nomadic and settled C. (Markovetses). The lang., presumably close to Yukagir, has been lost. The C. speak Chukchi lang. (nomadic C.) and the Markovets dialect of the Rus. lang. (settled C.). Relig. C. are Rus. Orthodox Christian.Pre-Christian notions and rites exist among nomadic C., along with Rus. Orthodoxy.

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Dolgans

DOLGANS, ethnic group in Taimyr (Dolgan-Nenets) Aut. Area of Krasnoyarsk Terr. Live mainly in Dudunka and Khatanga distrs. Acc. to the 2002 census, there are 7,300 p. Self-designation—haka; local self-designations dulgaan, tya kihite, tyalar are also used. The Dolgan lang. belongs to the Turkic group of Altai lang. and is often taken for a dialect of the Yakut lang. Presumably, the Dolgan lang. formed on the basis of the Yakut lang. spoken during the first wave of resettlement on the terr. of present-day Yakutia (17th cent.). The absence in the Dolgan lang. of certain Mongolian words borrowed by the Yakut lang. later testify to this. There are diff. dialects of the Dolgan lang.: W, E, and Popigai-Anabar. In 1970, the Dolgan lang. was spoken by 89.8% of the native pop., in 1979 by 90.6%, and in 1989 by 84.1%. Dolgan writing based on the Rus. alphabet was officially adopted in the late 1970s. The first book in Dolgan was published in 1973, and the first ABC book—in 1981. Teaching manuals of the Dolgan lang. are currently being compiled.Textbooks, programs, dictionaries, and oth. educ. publications were prepared by Ye.Ye. Aksenova, A.A. Barbolina, V.N. Parfiryev, M.I. Popova, N.P. Beltyukova, N.M. Artemyev, A.A. Petrov, etc. The local newsp. “Taimyr” presents articles in Dolgan, the area broadcasting center conducts programs in Dolgan.

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