N'ganasans

N’GANASANS, ethnic gr. living in the Taimyr tundra. Acc. to the data of the 2002 census, the total number is 879. Subdiv. into W, or Avam N., with centers in the vill. of Ust-Avam and Volochanka, and E, or Vadey N., with their center in the vill. of Novaya. The ethnic name N. was introd. in the 1930s, derived from nganasa, “man.” Self-name nya (“comrade”). In pre-Revolut. lit. the N. are known as Tavgian, Avam, and Vadei Samoyedes (by the name of their largest group), or just Samoyedes. Anthropologically, the N. belong to the Baikal type of the N Asian group. The N. lang. belongs to the Samodian branch of the Uralic lang. family. The Avam and Vadey dialects differ from each other. The N. lang. is considered mother tongue by 83.4% of the N.; only 2.5% are fluent in it, while 56.8% are fluent in Rus. No written lang.

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Negidals

NEGIDALS (Ngegida, Negida, Neidals), from Evenk ngegida—“from the coast,” “on the edge,” people in the FE, in Khabarovsk Terr. (Ulcha, Nikolaevsk and P. Osipenko Distr.). Acc. to the 2002 census, the total number is 806. Self-names: elkan beyenin—“local man” or amnun beyenin—“Amgun man.” Some N. call themselves by their clan name (Ayumkan, Nyasikhagil, and oth.). 19th cent. Rus. settlers called the N. Orochons or Gilyaks. The N.’s anthropol. type is akin to the Evenks. The lang., acc. to O.P. Sunik’s classif., belongs to the Sib. subgroup of Tungus lang. and has two dialects—Upper N. (on the Upper Amgun) and Lower N. (on the Lower Amgun, Liman, and Amur). The phon., gramm., and lexics of the Lower N. dialect are close to those of the Ulcha, Nanai, and Oroch lang.; of the Upper N., the Evenk lang. In addition, the N. lang., like those of other Tungus peoples of the Amur, has preserved traces of a pre-Tungus substrate, probably dating back to the ancient pop. of the Lower Amur.

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NENETSES

NENETSES, people in the N of the Eur. part of Russia and W Sib. Acc. to the 2002 census, the pop. was 41,454. The lang. belongs to the Samodian group of the Uralic lang. fam. It is considered mother tongue by 77.7% of the N. Written lang. based upon the Roman alph. since 1932, Rus. alph. since 1937. Self-name nenets’, neney nenets’ (“man”) became official in 1930. Until then, the N. were calledSamoyedes or Samoyed-Yuraks. There are diff. theories as to the origin of the term “Samoyed.” Acc. to the most probable one, it originated from saam-jedna, “the land of the Saami” (B.O. Dolgikh). Acc. to the best-substantiated hypothesis (I.E. Fisher, M.A. Kastren, G.N. Prokofyev), the Samodian community formed in S Sib. In the first cent. AD part of the Samodians migrated N, and another part became part of the Turkic peoples of S Sib. During the 1st cent. AD the majority of the Samodians branched out along the Ob, Yenisei and the area btw them into the zone of the N taiga, and later the tundra, bringing with them a reindeer breeding based econ. and assimilating the indig. pop. Then the N.’s ancestors moved W from the Lower Ob up to the White S., and by the 17th cent., E as far as the Yenisei.

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NIVKHS

NIVKHS (self-name nivkh, “man”), people in the FE. Inhabit the lower Amur (Ulcha and Nikolaevsk distr. of Khabarovsk Terr.), as well as Sakhalin Isl. (Rybnovsk and Aleksandrovsk distr. on the W coast and Tymovskoe Distr.). In the pastthe Ulchas, Negidals, and others called the N. “gilyaks.” This name was extended by Rus. settlers to other Lower Amur peoples—the Negidals themselves, Ulchas, and others. The ethnonym “N.” was officially adopted in the 1930s. In 1989there were 4,631 N. in Russia, in Khabarovsk Terr.—2,386, in Sakhalin Obl.—2,008. Acc. to 2002 census—5,287 people. The N. belong to a special Amur-Sakh. anthropol. type of the N Asiatic race. The lang. is isolated, has Amur, N Sakhalin and E Sakhalin dialects. Written lang. since 1932 on the basis of the Roman alphabet; since 1953, Rus. alphabet. Acc. to modern data, the N. lang. has elements which are akin to the S Asiatic, Altai, Manchu and Tungusic lang. Archeol. research has established numerous migrations of the N., starting with the move from SE and W to the Lower Amur in the Neolithic era. Thus, the N. culture was formed under conditions far removed from the complete isolation postulated by earlier researchers.Contacts btw N. and the Rus. began in the 17th cent., when Cossack explorers visited the Amur and Sakhalin. The first publications mentioning the gilyaks date back to the 17th—early 19th cent. (works by Du Gald, F. Miller, P. Zibold, et al.). In 1849-54, G.I. Nevelskoi’s exped. worked on the Lower Amur. Members of the exped. (esp. N.K. Boshnyak) left valuable descriptions of the N. culture. Members of the exped. founded the city of Nikolaevsk on the N.’s native land. Since 1855 Rus. farmers started settling on the lower Amur. In 1858-60, after the signing of the Aigun and Beijing Treaties with China, the lower Amur and Sakhalin officially became part of Russia. In 1850-60, the N. began to be studied by Rus. naturalists (L.I. Shrenk, P.P. Glen, F.B. Schmidt, etc.). At the turn of the 20th cent. and later, L.Y. Shternberg, B.O. Pilsudski, Y.A. Kreinovich, V.Z. Panfilov, Ch.M. Taksami, V.M. Sangi, A.M.KZolotareva, G.A.Otaina, et al.In 1897, the N. pop. count was 4,642. They had 51 settlements along the Amur (the farthest up was the vill. of Ukhta on the l. bank and Geri on the r. bank) and the Liman coast (from the vill. of Kol in the N to Chomy near Cape Lazarev in the S), and 57 on Sakhalin. Thus, the av. pop. of a N. settlement was 46-47. N. also settled in the Ulcha vill. of Auri, and the Ulchas, in their turn, coexisted with the N. in three N. vill. (Tyr, Kaberatsbakh and Chilvi).The N.’s princ. occup. is fishing, which provided food for people and dogs and materials for making clothes, footwear, sails for boats, etc. Fishing was done all yr. round. The princ. catch was migrating salmon (hunchback salmon in June, Sib. salmon in July and Sept.). At that time yukola—dry-cured fish—was preserved and stocked. Dried fish skeletons were stocked for sled dogs’ food. Fishing was done with fish spears (chak), hooks of all sizes and shapes on lines and sticks (kele-kite, chosps, matl, chevl, etc.), diff. fishing rods, nets—rectang., sack-like, stationary (incl. for ice fishing) and drift (chaar ke, khurki ke, nokke, lyrku ke, anz ke, etc.), seines (kyr ke), landing nets—and summer and winter locks (enclosures in the rivers with a net trap for fish).

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