Udegeys

UDEGEYS, ethn. gr. in the S of the FE. Pop. 1,665 (2002), living in Khabarovsk Terr. (Khabarovsk and Nanai distr.) and Primorye Terr. (Lazo, Termei, Krasnoarmeisk distr.) along tribs. of the Ussuri R. (Bikin, Khor), in the watershed of S part of Tatar Strait, along tribs. of the Amur—the Anyui, Khungari, and Tunguska rr. Their closest neighbors were the Oroches, who had been consid. one people with U. up to the late 19th cent. Pop. census in 1897 ascertained their total pop. as 2,407. In the late 19th cent. self-name of U. was first revealed—ude, ude-e, udehe. U. lang. is related to the S subgroup of the Tungus-Manchu lang. and is divided into patois grouped in Samarga-Khungari, Khor-Anyui, and Bikin-Iman dialects. U. had no system of writing; their alphabet was created on the basis of Cyrillic alphabet in the 1930s. In the 1990s, a new system of writing was created by V.T. Kyalundzyuga on the basis of modern Rus. lang., incl. alphabet, grammar, and textbooks.The most ancient pop. lived along the Ussuri R. from the Paleol. and Mesol. Age. It consisted of gr. that came from SE Asia. In var. periods gr. of settlers from the W, later on from the NW, came here. Local and wider “multi-layer” cult. incl. remains of previous cult. Medieval Tungus-Manchu states of the 8-9th, 12th and 16-17th cent. also influenced the ethnic hist. of U. The U. lang. has both a strong Evenk layer and elem. of the Jurchen, Mong., Turkic, Ainu, and Nivkh langs., as well as traces of some substratum, possibly of Paleo-Asian or Old Korean origin.Hunting and fishing were basic occup. of the U.

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Ulchas

ULCHAS, people in the FE. Pop. in 1897, 1,455; in 1959, 2,055; in 1970, 2,448; in 1979, 2,552; in 1989, 3,233. Of the latter 2,733 live in Khabarovsk Terr., mainly in Ulcha Distr., in Bulava, Dudi, Kalinovka, Kolchom, Mongol, Ukhta, Tyr vill., in distr. center Bogorodskoe, in Kalinovka, Mariinskoe, Sofiiskoe vill. The census of 2002 registered 3,098 U. Self-name—nani, nanisali, from na, “ground,” ni, “man,” “people,” literally “local p.” The Oroches and Udegeys of Tatar Strait named them manguny, from Mangu, the Amur R., and mangu nai, “the Amur p.” Local Rus. wrongly named U. and Nivkhs “the Gilyaks.” The ethnonym “U.” was introduced in sc. lit. by L.I. Shrenk, from name of the Olcha clan, and since 1930s it has been the offic. name. U. lang. is related to Tungus-Manchu gr. of the Altaic lang. fam. It is close to Nanai; formerly it was sometimes consid. a dialect of the Nanai lang. Anthropol. type of U. has an indig. layer, formed along the Amur R. from the Neolithic Age. A significant role was played later by the Baikal type as well. By their anthropol. features, U. occupy an intermediate position btw the Tungus-Manchu gr. and the Nivkhs. Ethnogenesis of U. is like that of their neighs. from the lower Amur. Neolithic sites of fishermen and hunters were sit. in many places where the Amur peoples are settled now. For several thou yrs. various small ethnic gr. appeared here. The Mokhe tribes (last cent. BC—first cent. AD) were most significant gr.; they brought the Tungus-Manchu lang. and cult. to the Amur area. Before their arrival and later on in various periods, Altai, Turkic, Mong., Ainu and other ethnic elements were found. In the course of interaction of all the various ethnic gr., a specific lower Amur cult. was formed. In the early 17th cent. Rus. Cossacks discovered native pop. with a complex ethnic struct. on the lower reaches of the Amur. The sit. was basically the same in the mid-19th cent., when the Rus. began to settle there, close to the Tungus-Manchu-speaking Nanais, U., Udegeys, Nedigals, and Oroches as well as the Nivkhs with their isolated lang. As a result of centuries-old contacts of these peoples, interethnic marriages, and unions btw diff. clans, a similar material and spiritual cult. was formed. A hypothesis by L.I. Shrenk about the Nivkhs as “creators” of a unique lower Amur cult. (oth. peoples being, to the idea of the researcher, newcomers who had borrowed it as a “ready-made” one from the Nivkhs) is supported by few today.

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Yukagirs

YUKAGIRS, people of NE Sib. who live in the basins of the Yana, Alazeya, Indigirka, Omolon, Bolshoi and Maly Anyui,Kolyma, and Anadyr rr. In 1989 there were 1,142 Y., of whom 726 lived in Sakha (Yakutia), over 250 of them in Nizhnekolymsk Distr. (incl. 80 in Andryushkino and 40 in Kolymskoe Vill.), 200 in Verkhnekolymsk Distr. (incl. 125 in Nelemnoe and 40 in Zyryanka Vill.), 95 in Allaikha Distr. (incl. 40 in Chokurdakh and 40 in Olenegorsk Vill.), 120 in Anadyr Distr. of Chukotka (32 in Markovo, 31 in Anadyr, 20 in Ust-Belaya, and 20 in Snezhny). Self-name: odul, vadul (probably “strong, mighty”).

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