Eskimos

ESKIMOS is the accepted Russian term indicating a group of related peoples: Inuit live in the Arc. coastal region of N Am., in Alaska (c.30,000) and in Canada (c.25,000); Kaliliit live in Greenland (c.45,000); and Asian, or Sib., E live in Russia, on the SE shore of the Chukotka Pen. (1,798 in 2002).Asian E. called themselves Yuk (a man), Yugyt, or Yupik (a real man), Yupigyt being the plural. Local geographic designations were also used: Ungazigmit, or Ungaziketses, i.e. Chaplino residents (from Ungazik, the former name of Chaplino Vill.); Sirenigmit, or residents of Sireniki Vill., and Navukagmit—Naukans. The Chukchi call E. aivanat. In 1931, an attempt was made to call Sib. E. “Yuits,” but the former name was restored in 1936. Today, some Chukotka E. insist on calling themselves “Yupik.”Anthropologically, E. belong to the Arc. sub-race of the greater Mongoloid race. Their langs. belong to the Eskimo-Aleutian fam. and can be divided into 2 major groups: Yupik (W) for Asian and Alaskan E., and Inupiak (E) for Greenland and Can. E. On the Chukotka Pen., the Yupik lang. is divided into sev. dialects: Sireniki, Central-Sib. or Chaplino, and Naukan. Today, Chukotka E. speak Rus. and Chukchi lang. along with their mother tongue.Members of S.I. Dezhnev’s exped. (1655) were the first to mention Asian E. Until the end of the 19th cent., Chukotka explorers did not differentiate btw E. and coastal Chukchi. The difference btw them was only revealed through the ling. research of N.L. Gondatti and V.F. Miller. E. were first identified by N.L. Gondatti, who conducted a survey of the pop. of the Chukotka coast in 1895. After Chukotka joined Russia, E. were liberated from yasak. They had little contact with Russia until the mid-19th cent., and felt virtually no Rus. cult. influence.

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Evenkis

EVENKS, people in Centr. and E Sib. Live btw the r. tribs. of the Ob R. in the W and the S. of Okhotsk coast and Sakhalin Isl. in the E, the Arc. Oc. coast in the N and Transbaikalia and the Amur R. in the S. Acc. to the 1989 census, there were 29,900 E. incl.: 14,400 in Sakha Rep. (Yakutia), 4,400 in Krasnoyarsk Terr. (incl. 3,500 in Evenk Aut. Area.), 1,400 in Irkutsk Obl., 1,300 in Chita Obl., 1,700 in Buryatia, 1,600 in Amur Obl., 3,700 in Khabarovsk Terr., 138 in Sakhalin Obl. Outside Russia, 20,000 E. live in NE China (in Manchuria, on the Hingang Spurs) and Mongolia (the upper reaches of the Iro R. and Lake Buir Nur).The E. call themselves evenk, even; the local E. groups, also orochon (from the Oro R. or oron “reindeer,” Transbailalia-Amur gr.), ile “man,” Katanga and the Upper Lena gr.), mata (Olekma gr.), Kilen (the S. of Okhotsk coast gr.), etc.In the 19th and 20th cent., the E. were known as Tunguses. The word origin is traced to the ancient (first cents. BC) Cental Asia ethnonym Dun-khu (from Mongolian tung (forest p.) or the Yakut tong uos (people with frozen lips, i.e. speaking a strange lang.); other viewpoints also exist.The E. belong to the Katanga, Baikal, and Central Asia athropol. types of N Asian Mongoloids. Speak the Evenk lang. of the N (Tungus) subgroup of the Tungus-Manchu group of the Altai ling. fam. The Evenk lang. consists of 3 major dialect gr.: N, in the N of Krasnoyarsk Terr. and Irkutsk Obl. (Nakanno, Ilimpeya, Tutonchana, and Olenek dialects); S, in the Podkamennaya Tunguska basin, the Yenisei l. bank, the Upper Lena, and in the Baikal area (Sym, Ucham, Tokma-Upper Lena, Baikal (incl. N Baikal and Baunt), Taloch, and Podkamennaya Tunguska dialects; E, from the Lena R. to the S. of Okhotsk shore and Sakhalin Isl. (Barguzin, Uchur, Ayan-Maya, Kur-Urmi, Tugur-Chumikan, Zeya-Bureya, Sakhalin dialects, as well as Olekma and Aldan dialect gr.). 55.7% of E. speak fluent Rus., 28.3% consider it their mother tongue; the Yakut and Chinese lang. are also spoken.

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Evens

EVENS (self-name Eveny), people in the NE of Sib. Acc. to the census of 1989, their pop. totaled 17,200; in 2002, 19,242. They live in localized groups in Sakha Rep. (Yakutia) (Allaikha, Moma, Tompo, Srednekolymsk, Verkhoyansk, Ust-Yana, Kobyai, Nizhnekolymsk, erkhnekolymsk, Oimyakon, Abyisk, Bulun, and Even-Bytantai Distr.), in Magadan Obl. (Ola, Severo-Evensk, Omsukchan, Tenkinski, Khasyn, and Yagodnoe Distr.), in Khabarovsk Terr. (Okhotsk Distr.), in Kamchatka Obl. (Bystrinsk, Penzhina, and Olyutora Distr.), in Koryak Aut. Area (Tigil Distr.), and in Chukotka Aut. Area (Bilibino and Anadyr Distr.).In the ethnogr. literature the E. are also known as Lamuts (from the Even lamu—“sea”). There are also some local names: orochiel, ilkan, etc.The E. speak the Even lang., which belongs to the N (Tungus) branch of the Tungus-Manchu group of the Altaian lang. family. The lang. has more than a dozen local sub-dialects forming the E, middle, and W dialects. 52.5% of the E. speak Russian.

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Itelmen

ITELMENS, indigenous pop. of NW Kamchatka. In Rus. sources of the late 17th cent. are mentioned as Kamchadals. During the 2002 census 3,474 I. were registered. I. call themselves “itenmen” which means “one who exists.” G.V. Steller was the first to record this name among the I. of the W Kamchatka coast in 1739-40. In works by S.P. Krasheninnikov and G.V. Steller, names of local dialect groups of I. are mentioned.: kshaagzhi or kykhcheren (btw. the Zhupanova and Nemtik rr.); chupagzhu or burin (btw. Verkhny Kamchatski Isl., now Verkhnekamchatsk, and the Zhupanova R.); lingurin (btw. the Nemtik and Belogolovaya rr.); kules (to the N of the Belogolovaya R.). In the late 19th cent., only NW I. called themselves “itenmen.” In the records of the 1926-27 circumpolar census, the ethnonym “I.” was attributed to the residents of eleven vill. of the NW coast who retained their native tongue: in eight of them

(Sopochnoe, Moroshechnoe, Belogolovoe, Hairuzovo, Kavran, Utholok, Napana, and Sedanka), they made up the majority of the pop., in three (Tigil, Voyampolka, Palana), they were in the minority. Acc. to G.F. Debets, I. belong to a special anthropol. type—Arctic race of the great Mongoloid race. The Itelmen lang. belongs to the Chukchi-Kamch. fam. of lang. Only one of the Kamchadal lang. described in the 18th cent.—W Itelmen?has survived until now. Linguists identify two (Sedanka, Hairuzovo—S.N.

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