Kets

KETS, people living in the mid. course of the Yenisei R. Acc. to the 2002 census, 1,891 K. lived in the former USSR, 1,084 of them in Rus. Their name, derived from the word ket (human being), was introduced in the 1920s. Before that, K. were known as Ostyaks, or Yenisei Ostyaks, the name used by Rus. in the early 17th cent. when they advanced to the Yenisei R., by analogy with the familiar Ob-Ugrian Ostyaks (Khants) and Selkups who spoke the Samodian lang. Then and later, K. identified themselves by clan affiliation and places of residence (Yelogui p., upper course, forest, or bank p.). The K. lang. is an isolated one, with a unique struct. not corres. with neighb. lang. Traditionally it is placed in the Yenisei ling. fam. which, besides the living K. lang., unites the lang. of Arins, Assans, Kotts, Pumpokols, and oth. p. close to K. who disappeared by mid-9th cent. 2 dialects of K. lang., Imbat and Sym, have been known since mid-19th cent. The Sym (Yugski) is often recognized today as an independent lang. of the Yenisei fam. The K. lang. has tended to disappear.

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Khanty

 

KHANTY, people in W Siberia. Live sparsely in the Ob and Irtysh rr. basins. Pop. in 2002 was 28,773. Three ethnographic Kh. groups are recognized: northern, the self-name or (Lower Ob and tribs. Kazym, Kunovat, Synya, and Voikar), southern, the Khante (Irtysh R. and part of Middle Ob R.), and eastern, or the Kantek, Kantekh, Kantaga-yakh, or Kanta-yakh (Middle Ob R. and tribs. Agan, Pim, Tromegan, Bolshoi and Maly Yugan, Vakh, and Vasyugan). In the 17-19th cent., Kh. also called themselves Kondikho, Kandayakhi, Khondokho, Kandykho, and Khande-gui. Each group has it own dialect and culture; they are mostly endogamous (84.1% of marriages in the northern group, 89% in the southern, and 97.5% in the eastern). Kh. terr. groups (Vasyugan, Kasym, Salym, Yugansk, etc.) differ in dialects and culture and have many local names for themselves: Kazym ekh, Synya ekh (or yakh), etc.The name Kh. is believed to originate from the name of the Konda R. (Khunte, Kontekh), from Turkic (khan, khondikho, people of the khan), from the Huns’ name for themselves (khunnu), from Finnish kunta (community), or from Hungarian khad, army. The name Kh. probably originated from the tribal name Khante. Until 1917, Russians called the Kh. Ostyaks (from Khanty as-yakh where as means big river (including the Ob) and yakh means people; other hypotheses are derivations from Tatar istek, ishtek, yshtyak, or eshtek, meaning foreigner). Until the 14th cent. the Kh. and the Mansis were called Yugra or Yugrichi (which yielded the modernterm “Ob Ugrians”) in Russian documents and chronicles.

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Koryaks

KORYAKS, people in the NE of Rus. Pop. of 9,077 (2002) belong to the Kamchatka anthropol. type of the arc. race. Lang. of the Paleoasiatic group. Alphabet on the Latin graphic base since 1931, on the Rus. since 1936. The ethnogenesis of K. involved groups of hunters and fishermen who penetrated NE Asia from Baikal, Yakutia, and Amur areas and Primorye Terr. K. did not have a common self-name. In the 18th cent., when contacts with Rus. began, K. were divided into nomadic p. (self-name chav’chu or reindeer herder) and sedentary (self-name nymyl’o, or residents, villagers), who separated to form several isolated groups (karan’ynyl’o or Karagins, alutalyu or Alyutors, poitylyo or Parena, vaikynelyo or Kamenetses). Neighb. p.—Chukchi and Eskimos—called them tann’yt or foreigner, enemy, Yukagirs called K. karaka, and Evens called sedentary K. kheyeke, or “the one who shows himself from the hill” and chan’-chivar or "gathered with many reindeer.” Nomadic (reindeer) K. settled in the inner areas of Kamchatka and the adj. continental part; the sedentary (coastal) K. lived on the E and W Kamchatka coasts, in the area of Penzhina Bay and Cape Taigonos. The ec. of sedentary K. combined sea mammal hunting, fishing, land hunting and gathering. Sea mammal hunt. mainly involved coastal K. of the Penzhina Bay (Itkanetses, Parenetses, and Kamenetses); it was also important for Apuka and Karagins and less significant for Palana groups. The hunt. season started in late May or early June and cont. till late fall. In spring, hunt. was individual, while in fall K. hunted in teams. Their main weapons were harpoons (v’emek) of the rotating and non-rotating types, and nets. Leather umiak boats (kultaytvyyt, lit. “a boat of bearded sealskin”) and one-man kayaks, or mytyv, were used in hunting. K. hunted various species of seals: bearded, eared, ringed, spotted, and ribbon seals. Till mid-19th cent., sedentary K. of the Penzhina Bay and Alyutors hunted whales. Apuka, Alyutors, and Karagin K. killed walruses. By the late 19th cent., the hunt. of these animals deteriorated due to the annihilation of whales and walruses by American whalers. Fish., mainly for salmon, moved to the foreground in the K. ec. They used set and scoop nets, angling rods (eyeg’unen), and hooks on a long strap resembling a harpoon. Fish. was supplemented with land hunt., and K. also gathered wild berries and edible roots. The Karagin and Palana K. cultivated vegetables and bred cattle. Common hunt. gear incl. traps, self-triggered crossbows (yjtan), nets, weight traps, and cherkans. Firearms were common from the late 18th cent. Reindeer herding develop. among the Alyutors in the 19th cent. They mostly acquired reindeer in exchange for the prod, of marine mammal hunt. and commodities received from Rus. merchants. The size of Alyutors’ herds ranged from several dozen to several hundred reindeer. Some fam. of Apuka, Karagin, and Palana K. also had a small number of reindeer. Nomadic K. (chavchuvens) were charact. by large-scale reindeer herding with the size of the herd ranging from 400 to 2,000 beasts. In the course of the yr., reindeer herders perf. 4 main migrations: in spring they went to reindeer-moss pastures before calving; in summer they moved to the places with the least numbers of gnats; in fall they moved closer to their camping grounds, where mass killing of reindeer was done; and in winter they made short trips in the vicinity of their camping grounds. The main tools of shepherds were a lariat (chav’at), a staff, and a boomerang-shaped stick used to drive in the stray part of the herd. In winter nomadic K. hunted fur animals.

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Mansi

MANSI, indigenous pop. of Khanty-Mansi Aut. Area. Pop. 11,573 acc. to 2002 census.Mansi, closest relatives of the Khants and Hungarians, live in the area around the Ob, Severnaya Sosva, and Konda rr. As an ethnonym, mansi, meaning “human being,” is the name they give themselves, adding the name of the locality from which this group comes (Sakv Mansit means Mansis from Sygva). In respect to oth. peoples, Mansi call themselves Mansi Makhum, or Mansi people. “Ob Ugrians,” the common name they share with Khants, integrates the 2 peoples (unlike Hungarians, or Danube Ugrians). “Voguls,” their obsolete name, is derived from the name of vokyl (from the Khant word vykli), a tribe from the Urals, acc. to one version, or from the Komi-Zyryan word vagol (“foreigner,” “wild,” “ignorant”). The Mansi lang. belongs to the Finn-Ugr. group of the Ural-Yukagir lang. fam.

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