Traditional clothing of the northern people

Dolgan’s outer clothing was sewn of purchased fabrics. Men wore Russian style shirts and trousers, women wore dresses with closed aprons. Girdles ornamented with beadwork were worn on top. There was no underwear. All yr. round men and women wore linen caftans called sontap, during the winter, they also wore polar fox or hair fur coats, throw-open coats of reindeer fur (parka) with hoods, and sokui. Dolgan male caftans and ancient male and female aprons are similar to Evenk parki and breast strips. A slightly longer back hem is the charact. feature of D. clothes. Bergese fur caps were made like hoods with broadcloth or fox kamus on the outer side, embroidered with beads and color strips of fabric. Winter footwear made of reindeer kamuses (similar to Evenk unts or unty, high fur boots) is of two kinds: short, knee-high, and above the knees; embroidered with beads. Summer footwear was sewn of rovduga. Festive clothes and footwear was richly decorated with beadwork, applique from color strips of fabric, and embroidered with reindeer hair on top of the rovduga, dyed red with alder water or ochre, and black—with graphite. In the past, straps and belts of reindeer harness were embroidered with sinew threads. Mammoth bone carving was a male craft. Carved cheek plates for reindeer semi-bridles are also typical. Tin incrustation of knife handles may also be seen. D. mainly used geometrical decorative patterns.

Clothing and footwear of the tundra and coastal Chukchis do not substantially differ from, and are almost identical to, those of the Eskimos in cut and way of sewing. Winter clothing in both terr. C. gr. was made of two reind. skin layers with the fur facing either in or out. The coastal C. also used sealskin for making pants and footwear for spring and summer, as it is durable, elastic and virtually waterproof; raincoats and kamleikas were made out of walrus guts. The reindeer Chukchis made pants and footwear from new reindeer skins, as well as used old smoked yaranga coverings, which do not warp from moisture. Through barter of home-produced goods, the tundra Chukchis obtained footwear, leather soles, belts, lassos made of skins of sea mammals, and the coastal C., reind. skins for winter clothing. There was no spec. seasonal clothing, in summer they used worn-out winter wear.
The national Chukchi’s clothing, which is cut to be pulled over, is subdivided into casual everyday and festive-ritual; children’s, youth, men’s, women’s, old people’s; ritual and funeral clothing. A traditional Chukchi man’s outfit consists of a kukhlyanka girded with a belt with a knife and tobacco pouch on it, a printed cotton kamleika over the kukhlyanka for protection against rain and snow, a raincoat made from walrus guts, pants, var. headgear: the tradit. C. winter cap, malakhai, hood, light summer cap. Basic women’s wear is fur overalls with wide sleeves and short knee-length pants.
The typical Chukchi footwear are short torbasa of several types: of eared seal skin (with the fur facing outside) with piston-type bearded seal skin soles; of reindeer kamus worn with fur stockings and grass insoles protecting the feet from chilblain (winter torbasa); of scraped eared seal skin or old smoked-through yaranga coverings (summer torbasa).
At present the Chukchis wear both traditional (reindeer breeders in the winter tundra and sea hunters) and modern European style (mostly in villages.) clothing and footwear, often combining both types. Women tend to prefer modern clothes; old traditional clothes can only be found in the tundra, mainly among elderly women.